How often do you express your disbelief when browsing through someone’s code saying out loud “Omg, that’s real spaghetti code…” ? Probably quite often. And how sure are you that no one thought the same when working with your code? In other words, how sure are you that your code is clean? The truth is that you can only be sure if you fully know what clean code means.
It is hard to create a precise definition of clean code and probably there are as many definitions as developers. However, some principles that lead to a basic level of clean code apply. I have gathered the 9 most relevant ones and described them in short below.
1. Bad code does too much – Clean code is focused
Each class, method or any other entity should remain undisturbed. It should conform to SRP (Single Responsibility Principle). Shortly speaking, we can say that SRP (according to some well-known definitions) is about making sure that if you can think of the reason for changing a class you should not be able to come up with more than one.
Though, I wouldn’t limit this definition only to the concept of classes. In his latest article Ralf Westphal presents a broader definition of Single Responsibility Principle. According to his definition:
A functional unit on a given level of abstraction should only be responsible for a single aspect of a system’s requirements. An aspect of requirements is a trait or property of requirements, which can change independently of other aspects.
If you would like to read more about the quoted thesis I advise you to dig into his article.
2. The language you wrote your code with should look like it was made for the problem
It is not the language that makes a program look simple, but the programmer who makes the language appear simple.
(quote from Robert C. Martin)
This means, for instance, that you shouldn’t use workarounds which make code and language usually look awkward. If you claim that something can only be done by means of a workaround, it usually means that you haven’t spent enough time on trying to find a good, clean solution.
3. It should not be redundant
It should comply with the DRY rule (Don’t Repeat Yourself). When the DRY principle has successfully been applied, the modification of any single element of a system doesn’t require a change in any other logically unrelated elements.
4. Reading your code should be pleasant
When browsing through the code you should feel like reading Harry Potter (yeah I know that’s a slight exaggeration :)). You should feel that it was made to be read by any developer easily without hours spent on digging into it.
To achieve this you should try to comply with the KISS principle (Keep It Simple, Stupid!) and YAGNI principle (You Ain’t Gonna Need It). The KISS principle states that most systems work best if they are kept simple rather than made complex.
Therefore, simplicity should be a key goal in design, and unnecessary complexity should be avoided. YAGNI is a practice encouraging to purely focus on the simplest things that make your software work.
5. Can be easily extended by any other developer
You don’t write code for yourself , or worse - for a compiler. You write code for other developers. Don’t be selfish – think about the others. Don’t torture other developers by producing a hardly maintainable and extendable code. Besides, in some months time you could be that “other developer” yourself.
6. It should have minimal dependencies
The more dependencies it has, the harder it is to maintain and change it in the future. You can always help yourself in achieving the goal of having minimal dependencies by using e.g. NDEPEND for checking potential incorrectness in the dependencies of your code.
7. Smaller is better
Code should be minimal. Both classes and methods should be short, preferably just a few lines of code. It should be well divided (also within one class). The better you divide your code the easier it becomes to read it. This principle might positively influence point 4 – it will make it easier for other developers to understand your code.
8. It should have unit and acceptance tests
How can we know that our code complies with the requirements if we don’t write tests? How can we maintain and extend it without the fear that it will stop working? Code without tests is simply not clean. If you would like to get to know more about the pillars of unit testing I advise you to read a very nice article Three Pillars of Unit Tests written by one of my colleagues.
9. It should be expressive
Expressiveness of the code means that it has meaningful names. These names should express their intention. They should not mislead you. They should be distinctive. Expressiveness makes code document itself making the need for documentation less important. If you want to read more about the subject of self-documenting code I recommend you to go through this article.
So what is in fact the definition of clean code?
All in all there is one final quality that summarizes all the above:
Clean code is a code that is written by someone who cares
quote from Michael Feathers
It is written by someone who has treated it as an art and paid attention to all details.
The subject of clean code is in fact very complex and goes far beyond the knowledge presented in this post. Therefore if you find any other characteristics that you think make code cleaner do not hesitate and share them with us!